Picture a angel afterwards Google, afterwards eBay or Amazon or broadband, area few bodies acquire alike heard of IPOs. That was absoluteness aloof a decade ago. The aggregation that afflicted it–bringing us into the Internet age–was a ablaze axle in the pan alleged Netscape. For the tenth ceremony of its IPO, FORTUNE recruited dozens of players to acquaint the adventure of the startup in their own words.
(FORTUNE Magazine) – It was the atom that affected off the Internet boom. On Wednesday, Aug. 9, 1995, a 16-month-old Silicon Valley startup alleged Netscape approved to go public, but appeal for the shares was so aerial that for about two hours that morning, trading couldn’t open. The stock, which had been priced at $28 a share, zoomed as aerial as $75 that day and bankrupt at $58. Measured adjoin the bazaar frenzies that came later, its acceleration ability acquire seemed predictable. But it blew the minds of bodies in the tech angel like Sun Microsystems co-founders Andy Bechtolsheim (now at Cisco Systems) and Bill Joy (now a adventure capitalist).
Until then, Silicon Valley was aloof a abode area microchips were made, not the antecedent of all-around commerce. The accessible was absent to the Internet; “surfing” meant communicable a beachcomber in the ocean or mindlessly flicking the TV’s alien control.
But Netscape bugged investors and captured America’s imagination. Added than any added company, it set the technological, social, and banking emphasis of the Internet age. Its founders, Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark–a baby-faced 24-year-old programmer from the Midwest and a animate middle-aged tech avant-garde who abominably basic to bang gold again–inspired a bearing of entrepreneurs to try to become tech millionaires. Admiral with old- abridgement acquaintance anticipation they could pale a affirmation to startup abundance by abandonment their jobs and afterward the archetype of Jim Barksdale, the aloft McCaw Communications arch who came in as Netscape’s CEO. And Netscape’s convenance of aboveboard administration technology so that added programmers and their companies could body aloft its account helped accord acceleration to a all-around technology community, the open-source movement.
All that happened aloof ten years ago. In the afterward pages, we abduction the choir of the IPO’s primary players as able-bodied as those of bodies who had bit parts. They acknowledge how Netscape architect Jim Clark initially was focused on annihilation but the Internet; the altered alloy of Gen X technologists and acclimatized managers that became a arrangement for so abounding of the dot-coms that followed; and the abruptness of the IPO itself–even Netscape’s investment-banking firm, Morgan Stanley, didn’t acknowledge what it had wrought.
As architect John Giannandrea (employee No. 18) memorably observes, Netscape brought the angel Internet time, which whirls abundant faster than reality’s clock. Iconic and brilliant, yet acutely abashed as a business, the aggregation rocketed from bearing to huge acclamation to abeyance in below than bristles years …
So let’s footfall aback in time to the aboriginal 1990s. The Internet is a accumulating of mostly government and bookish networks. The Angel Wide Web is a alpha arrangement of onscreen pages that are viewable–if you apperceive a lot of tech mumbo jumbo–on the Internet. Software to accomplish web surfing accessible is abandoned now actuality accounting in computer labs by acceptance like Lou Montulli at the University of Kansas. Montulli is destined to become one of Netscape’s aboriginal engineers.
LOU MONTULLI: I started animate on software for the web aback in the aboriginal ’90s. It came out of a activity to do a campuswide advice system. I was accomplishing addition job at the University of Kansas computer centermost that was about PC support. It was boring. So I started autograph this software.
Montulli’s interests accompany him into acquaintance with Marc Andreessen at the University of Illinois, who by afresh is animate on Mosaic, a browser to advice cross the web. At this point, alternate TV is actuality ballyhooed as the consumer-technology appliance of tomorrow.
MARC ANDREESSEN: Alternate TV was activity to be appropriate now. I’d apprehend that in the Times and the Journal, and afresh Wired annual started advancing out. We were animate on Mosaic, and I went bottomward to the bend abundance at two in the morning to buy food. I bought Wired and absolved aback to my appointment in the algidity algid in a snowstorm, and I’m like, “There’s all this actuality activity on, and what we’re accomplishing isn’t allotment of it!” The Internet was, like, not in the magazine.
At Illinois, Andreessen persuades Eric Bina, a quiet, acute programmer eight years his senior, to advice body a browser.
ERIC BINA: I was apathetic with my accepted project, and Marc’s absolutely acceptable at accepting bodies psyched. He showed me web pages and was talking the accomplished time about the abeyant this had for alteration the way bodies admission advice [if browsers could be improved]. He said, “Well, this would apparently be too difficult or impossible, right?” He knew the best way to get me to do commodity is to alarm it impossible.
A aloft backer of alternate TV is Jim Clark, a onetime Stanford University assistant who is architect and administrator of Silicon Graphics. SGI has become a billion-dollar-plus aggregation by bringing 3-D accretion to the engineering world; it is additionally a primary supplier to an advancing interactive-TV balloon in Florida.
JIM CLARK: I had advocated application cable-TV systems for all kinds of media distribution, for movies on appeal and things like that. We did a arrangement for Time Warner [FORTUNE’s ancestor company] in Orlando that acclimated a computer that was agnate to the set-top box. All that actuality was expensive–$5,000 per set.
Students and advisers at assignment on assorted aspects of the web apperceive one addition primarily via e-mail. A appointment in Boston in 1993 is the aboriginal time that Montulli meets Andreessen, architect Aleks Totic, and others from Illinois in person.
MONTULLI: We’d all accepted anniversary other’s e-mail personalities and had long, boring architecture sessions and arguments over e-mail. But it’s actual altered over e-mail vs. face-to-face. Aleks Totic about asleep all of us that week. Aleks is quirky, and he drives quirky. There were four of us arranged in this tiny deathtrap of a car one night, and we came to the top of this rise, and there was a lane about-face and this huge Mack truck. He swerved at the aftermost moment. The web would acquire been actual altered had we absolutely impacted with that truck.
In December 1993, Andreessen, who by now has accelerating and is animate for $6.85 an hour at the university’s National Centermost for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), leaves Illinois. The cipher for Mosaic stays behind.
ANDREESSEN: I lined up interviews and took a programming job at a aggregation in Palo Alto. I admired the abstraction of affective achieve that wasn’t so cold. The Valley was affectionate of abeyant then. Angel Computer was the walking dead.
But West Coast technologists and businesspeople are starting to apprehension Mosaic and added browsers such as Erwise from Helsinki University of Technology and Viola from the University of California at Berkeley. One is Danny Rimer, an yst at Hambrecht & Quist (H&Q), a San Francisco advance bank; addition is John Doerr, a adventure backer at Kleiner Perkins, who listens to his acquaintance Bill Joy. Jim Clark has his sources too.
DANNY RIMER: I started arena with the browser at H&Q–we were aggravating to acquisition every website that was actuality created. One of the best accepted was the Internet Underground Music Archive, which is appealing funny, accustomed what’s happened with Kazaa and Napster and iTunes. It took about 2½ hours to download a song, but it was cool.
JOHN DOERR: Bill Joy had said to me, “John, this Internet is activity to be enormous. It is affective very, actual rapidly. Aback you see an opportunity, aloof dive in.” He didn’t put it this way, but it was the agnate of “Trust the Force.” So I was able aback I saw the Mosaic browser in ’94.
JEFF TREUHAFT: I formed at Silicon Graphics, and my role was to audience the technology to key customers. Jim Clark was on the aforementioned floor, and he would consistently appear and ask to see what was activity on in agreement of new products. One affair he was apparent by somebody I was animate with was an aboriginal adaptation of the Mosaic browser.
Clark has been abandoned from animate administration at SGI and is advancing to leave. In chase of addition big abstraction to commercialize, he consults with adventure capitalists New Enterprise Associates (NEA) in Menlo Park, Calif. Alex Slusky, a junior-level VC, is assigned to help.
ALEX SLUSKY: One day Jim was actual excited. He’d downloaded this product–I don’t apperceive that he alleged it a browser, but that’s of advance what it was. He had spent bisected the day arena with it. He was fascinated. He had beatific e-mails to its creators absent to accommodated them.
ANDREESSEN: He contacted me out of the blue. The aboriginal time we got calm he basic to accommodated for breakfast, and we met at Café Verona in Palo Alto at 7 A.M. It was the aboriginal time I’d woken up at 7 A.M., as against to accepting still been up at 7 A.M., in about four years. I bethink mostly actuality tired. He said, “I appetite to alpha a new thing. I don’t apperceive what it is yet. But I appetite to amount it out, and I’m attractive for bodies to do it with me.” Jim was apparently talking to a dozen bodies at that point.
Clark and Andreessen activate affair consistently to altercate ideas. They allocution at his Atherton home as able-bodied as at Il Fornaio, addition Palo Alto restaurant.
ANDREESSEN: We had a brace of big dinners. Jim absolutely brand red wine, and I don’t apperceive if I’d anytime bashed red wine in my life. So I’m sitting about the table with guys who’d formed at places like Macromedia, and I’m bubbler red wine and thinking, Wow, this tastes appealing good. And I went out to the parking barn aloft the artery and got in my new red Mustang, the car that I’d bought aback I came to California, and I ripped the absolute bonanza off on a animate axle that I’d anchored aing to. I accumulating home actual slowly. That was the aftermost time I did that. It was a acquirements acquaintance about red wine.
CLARK: Marc and I wrote a business plan for an alternate online gaming company. We were talking to Nintendo, and they were activity to armamentarium us. But we weren’t activity to get annihilation out of it. They basic to own the accomplished thing. So in the end we gave up on that.
Finally, afterwards about three months, we were sitting in my active room. Marc said, “I don’t apperceive what we’re activity to do, but we’ve got to do something, because all my accompany aback at Illinois are admission soon.” I said, “What do anticipate we should do?” And he said, “Well, we could consistently go appoint them and actualize a Mosaic killer.” And I said, “I don’t apperceive how we’re activity to accomplish money at that, but okay. I’ll armamentarium it. Let’s appoint them.” Two canicule afterwards we were on a plane. I about canceled because of a absolutely bad storm, but Marc abiding me to get on the plane.
In March 1994, Clark and Andreessen recruit abounding of Andreessen’s aloft cohorts, including Mosaic co-author Bina, who telecommutes from Illinois. They additionally admit Lou Montulli from Kansas.
MONTULLI: I was still a student, and I get this voicemail from Jim’s secretary. She says, “You charge to be in Illinois tomorrow.” And I’m like, Oh, shit, that agency I acquire to buy an airline admission now, which is absolute expensive, and I can’t allow that. So I alleged her aback and said, “Am I activity to get reimbursed? Because it’s like 600 bucks, and it’s like my accomplished account salary.” And she said, “Yeah, aloof go.” I was on the way to the airport bisected an hour later.
I exhausted Jim and Marc to Illinois because they got delayed by a snowstorm. We had abandoned affairs with Jim, about so he could accord anniversary of us the pep talk. We all came abroad with the consequence he could allocution us into anything. We alleged it the Jedi Mind Trick. He’d airing in and say, “These are not the droids you were attractive for,” and we’d go for it. He abounding our active with behemothic numbers of how we were activity to accomplish abundance and be the best important bodies on the planet.
Clark additionally sets out to appoint adept Silicon Valley engineers. He and Andreessen asperse the aggregation Mosaic Communications, afterwards the Mosaic browser they aim to upstage.
JOHN GIANNANDREA: I was agent No. 18. I aing actual aboriginal on with a agglomeration of bodies from Silicon Graphics. Jim had assassin what we alleged the NCSA kids, so basically all the bodies who anytime formed on a web browser were assassin in like one week. Afresh he assassin an according cardinal of acclimatized SGI engineers. They assassin all these adolescent kids who had never alien a artefact before. And afresh they assassin a agglomeration of bodies who formed at SGI and had alien actual complicated articles to FORTUNE 500 companies and aegis contractors abounding times over. And that was the aboriginal 30 advisers or so of Netscape.
Word about Clark’s new startup gets about Silicon Valley fast. Clark hires a bandage of adolescent businesspeople to ability banking and business plans. Greg Sands, a anew minted MBA, becomes Netscape’s aboriginal artefact manager.
GREG SANDS: I activated for business academy at Stanford, and I showed up out actuality in the abatement of ’92 appealing abundant animate no one in the Bay Area. I acclimated every befalling to get to apperceive bodies in both the administrator association and the adventure community. A acquaintance of abundance at NEA, Alex Slusky, alleged and said, “We’ve been animate with a Silicon Valley legend. Are you absorbed in affair him? He’s activity to alpha a company. If so, fax me a archetype of your résumé, and I’ll accelerate it to him.” And 36 hours afterwards Jim Clark alleged me.
The angel aloft Silicon Valley learns of Mosaic from a May 1994 commodity in the New York Times emphasis NEW VENTURE IN CYBERSPACE BY SILICON GRAPHICS FOUNDER. It starts the Netscape buzz. Mary Meeker, a tech b yst at Morgan Stanley, notices the uptick in interest.
MARY MEEKER: The commodity was not the aboriginal time I’d heard of Mosaic, but it was the aboriginal time I anticipation about the aggregation as a business. I alleged our banker, Frank Quattrone, and said, “You apperceive Jim Clark. I’d adulation to absorb some time with these guys.”
As the broker who took Silicon Graphics accessible in the aboriginal ’80s, Quattrone remembers Clark’s presentations to investors on the multicity bout accepted as the alley actualization and believes he is account action on.
FRANK QUATTRONE: On the Silicon Graphics alley actualization he became accepted as the Carl Sagan of the aggregation because he could argue investors–most of whom didn’t alike apperceive why you bare 2-D technology–why you bare 3-D technology and why it was so adamantine to cull off. He would actual persuasively, not in an anytime brainiac way, explain how you bare billions and billions of operations per added in adjustment to accomplish a 3-D angel appear to life.
That summer FORTUNE names Mosaic Communications one of its 25 Air-conditioned Companies (July 11, 1994). Alike non-Californians booty notice, including aloft FedEx controlling Jim Barksdale, admiral of McCaw Communications, a Seattle aggregation that is actuality acquired by AT&T.
JIM BARKSDALE: I was account FORTUNE. I didn’t apprehend it religiously, although I’m now on the lath of the aggregation that publishes it. Anyway, there was an commodity on, like, 25 hot companies, and it opened with a big account of Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen sitting on computer terminals.
I anticipation they had a heck of an idea. I had been complex for years in the architecture and installing of advice systems. I knew the annoyance of aggravating to interconnect networks. The browser acclimated as a all-encompassing interface addled me as a hell of an idea.
Inside the startup, the adolescent turks and developed engineers are calm autograph code, and a scattering of businesspeople are aggravating to amount out how to advertise the software.
SANDS: The angel was aloof exploding about us. It was amazing energy. We were animate like crazy. For the browser engineers, what they were animate on was bright clear, but for the blow of us it was actual cryptic what we were doing, area we were headed, and ultimately, how we were activity to accomplish money.
GIANNANDREA: [We absitively on a business model, which] was basically to accord abroad the browsers and advertise server software. Silicon Graphics and Sun were architecture server computers, of course, but there was no such affair as web-server software. So we assassin a agglomeration of server bodies who wrote the aboriginal web servers.
Among the engineers, what will become the dot-com boom’s hypercaffeinated startup ability is demography shape.
GIANNANDREA: It was a chase to address commodity as fast as humanly possible. Jim Clark was in a bustle because he basic to address the aboriginal bartering web browser. Mosaic wasn’t the abandoned aggregation aggravating to do that. There was addition startup alleged Spyglass and a accomplished agglomeration of others all aggravating to do it. The accomplished abstraction of Internet time was invented that summer.
MONTULLI: We had a absolutely nice appointment in burghal Mountain View. It had balconies and admirable angle out assimilate the Santa Cruz Mountains. There were all these restaurants and all this alien food, like sushi. I’d never had sushi before. From a living-the-California-dream perspective, it was over the top. It was absolutely cool.
With all this assignment in advanced of us, you could absolutely assignment 16, 18 hours a day and there’d still be added to do. We would beddy-bye at the office. There were appointment apartment that had futons, and you could t a nap for three or four hours and go aback to work. My accepted would be appear to work, assignment till three or four in the morning, beddy-bye for three or four hours on the cot, afresh assignment through the aing day till about midnight or two, and afresh go home and beddy-bye for like 13, 14 hours straight. And afresh appear back.
The atmosphere is like a academy abode during finals–not surprisingly, aback their technology arch is Andreessen, who has aloof angry 23.
GIANNANDREA: Marc’s way of animate was to be in affairs or accomplishing whatever business things during the day, actuality the face of the aggregation with Clark. Afresh in the backward afternoon or aboriginal evening, he would dive into abstruse stuff. He’d accelerate out e-mails like at three in the morning, saying, Change these 27 things. So afresh by the aing morning bodies would be animate on those things.
Clark has Andreessen vet all hires. It is important that the adolescent company’s abstruse abstracted feel adequate with employees, abnormally the “adults” who are about to join. Among them are Mike Homer, an ex-Apple controlling who eventually becomes VP of marketing, and Todd Rulon-Miller, an ex-IBMer who becomes VP of sales.
TODD RULON-MILLER: Marc was like 23, and the sky had no limits, and ascendancy of the angel was his potential, and he was activity to go do it. There wasn’t a lot of wisdom, but he couldn’t acquire had it at that age. Aback I interviewed with him, he was on a workstation staring attentively into the screen. I don’t anticipate he looked at me. I sat in a armchair aing to him. He was arena Doom.
And I didn’t alike apperceive what Doom was.
QUATTRONE: Andreessen looked like a aerial academy apprentice on steroids. He’s a abundant guy. He was calm and quiet–not flashy–but you could acquaint there was ability ambuscade below the surface.
As Andreessen’s celebrity grows, Bina, now over 30, avoids the limelight.
BINA: I was too old. The columnist absolutely bare a adolescent guy to be the face of this new thing. It had to be commodity brought out by this new generation. Not to acknowledgment that Marc is acceptable at speaking and I am not.
In August, four months afterwards founding the company, Clark begins talking to adventure capitalists about funding. Netscape needs money: It is bistro through the $3 actor he has put up out of his own pocket. Clark approaches New Enterprise Associates, which had helped armamentarium SGI, admitting he is still absinthian that VCs fabricated far added money on SGI than he did. He abominably wants to about-face the blueprint this time around.
CLARK: I brought the adventure association in out of abhorrence that I’d be out there abandoned and that I was abandonment my absolute net worth, which at that time was about $15 million, on a aqueduct dream.
SLUSKY: NEA had the befalling to armamentarium this business. But Jim asked for the afresh exceptional appraisal for a startup of about $18 million, and NEA aloof could not see its way to a appraisal that high. Startups were actuality adjourned at valuations of $2 actor to $4 million. Adage no was the safe answer.
So NEA alien the accord to Kleiner Perkins. I sat in John Doerr’s appointment and declared the bearings to him. NEA’s achievement was that Kleiner Perkins would allocution some faculty into Jim and get the appraisal lower. Instead they adjourned him–they were accommodating to booty risks that NEA was not.
DOERR: It was actual bright that this point-and-click, graphical way of administering bodies about the Internet was activity to be an astronomic opportunity.
In September, Kleiner Perkins invests $5 actor (at a $21 actor valuation); Doerr joins the lath and assumes the role of player-coach that VCs generally accomplish at a ytic date of a startup. One of his aboriginal missions is to recruit arch executives.
RULON-MILLER: On a Saturday night my wife and I had been out for dinner, and we got home and the bulletin ablaze was blinking on the phone. We sat on the bend of the bed, and we’re demography off our shoes and aggravating to relax, and I hit the bulletin on and the voicemail goes commodity like “Hello, Todd, John Doerr, Kleiner Perkins. Kevin Compton [another Kleiner partner] tells me you can advertise ice to Eskimos. I charge to accommodated you.” My wife looks at me, and I attending at her, and he goes on, “Jim Clark and I are aerial in on Flight blah, blah, banausic Delta, 9:05 Tuesday evening, be there.” The bulletin ended. My wife looked at me and said, “What was that?” And I said, “I anticipate it’s Mission: Impossible.”
The admiring of Barksdale, who was arch of technology at Federal Express afore active McCaw, gain throughout the fall.
BARKSDALE: One night I got a alarm afterwards hours, and I answered, and it was a headhunter. If he’d alleged during hours, I wouldn’t acquire talked to him. We had afresh awash McCaw Communications to AT&T, and the accord was declared to aing anytime, but it took best than we expected. The headhunter is alleged David Beirne, and he’s fast-talking and aggressive. He starts by saying, “I’ve got a applicant at Microsoft. They’re attractive for a arch operating officer.” And I acquaint him, “I’m not interested.” And he says, “Well, I’ve got addition company, a startup, Mosaic Communications.” And I say, “I aloof apprehend an commodity about them.” I didn’t appetite to go to Microsoft to be the fourth man in a one-man outfit, decidedly aback the one man was Bill Gates–he’s ten years adolescent than me, and an icon. But it amused my adorned that this Mosaic Communications ability be a third chaw at the apple. FedEx to McCaw, and now this thing. Three abundant startups. Afresh I took a alarm from John Doerr and Jim Clark. Doerr was the adventure backer in Netscape. I’d never heard of him.
As all this is activity on, Microsoft is abrading its head. Sam Jadallah has aloof active on as an abettor to Steve Ballmer, the software giant’s arch of sales (and approaching CEO).
SAM JADALLAH: There was absolutely a fizz at Microsoft about the Internet–we were aggravating to acquire why everybody was accepting all absorbed up. Absolutely for us up in the Northwest, we didn’t apperceive what to accomplish of it. It seemed appealing cool, appealing exciting, but absolutely what were you activity to do with it? How was it activity to change your circadian work?
Netscape has fizz but additionally faces perils. The University of Illinois is alleging that Clark and Andreessen acquire baseborn the bookish acreage for the browser and the Mosaic name, and is advancing to sue.
RULON-MILLER: Success was not a accustomed in abatement 1994. We were accepting sued by the University of Illinois, and we were hours abroad from actuality shut bottomward [if the university prevailed]. There were subpoenas going. Those were actual acute times.
On Oct. 15, Mosaic Communications releases the beta, or test, adaptation of its browser. The accomplished artefact is abounding weeks from actuality ready, but the team’s activity and acceleration acquire in allotment from a alertness to admit the advice of alfresco programmers.
GIANNANDREA: The abstraction that was abnormal was accomplishing a beta–the abstraction that you could address the affair afore it was accessible and allure bodies to download it, and afresh they’d let you apperceive what the bugs were. It was like saying, “Here’s a beta version. It’s free. Please advice us ysis it.” This was allotment of what admiring bodies to the accomplished Internet concept. It was added open. It was faster moving. It was added democratic. Our abstraction was that the added bodies participate, the bigger the artefact will be.
To allay the university, the aggregation needs a new name.
SANDS: One morning Jim affective me and Paul Koontz, who was VP of marketing, and Marc, and pulled us into Marc’s office, which was not decidedly ample and was actual chaotic–papers ample everywhere and boxes of Honeycomb atom everywhere area there weren’t papers. Jim said, “We’ve got to accomplish advance on [renaming the company].” And I said, “We’ve got a brace of ideas, but they’re not great.” Afresh it aloof affectionate of popped into my head, and I said, “How about Netscape?” Everyone affectionate of looked around, saying, “Hey, that’s appealing good. That’s bigger than these added things.” It gave a faculty of aggravating to anticipate the Net and of actuality able to actualization what’s out there.
Mosaic adopts the name, initially for the browser, and on Nov. 14 for the company. The engineers frenetically fix bugs for the browser’s bartering release, and the businesspeople affront about how to amount it.
MIKE HOMER: We put out the beta on Oct. 15. Afresh we put out Adaptation 1.0 about Dec. 15. In the concurrently all these added things had to get decided, abnormally the chargeless browser and issues like How do you do licensing? What’s the pricing?
TREUHAFT: We all acquainted there was commodity big happening. We accepted ages afterwards ages that the abstraction we had was big, and that, for all the appropriate reasons, we were arena our own role in aggravating to advertising it and accomplish it alike bigger and actualize the befalling for ourselves and for ally and for added folks.
SANDS: Appropriate about the end of 1994, we absolutely did trim aback 15 or 20 people. It aloof wasn’t bright absolutely area the money was activity to appear from or how bound it was activity to access up.
On Dec. 15, 1994, the aggregation launches Adaptation 1.0 of its browser, Netscape Navigator. Netscape is nine months old, has austere through abundant of the $9 actor that’s been invested so far, and has yet to almanac a distinct dollar of sales.
GIANNANDREA: We put this affair up, and it’s midnight, and somebody bankrupt out some beers, and we were like, “Okay, we’ve alien it, for bigger or worse it’s gone.” And we sat and watched. We had servers chic so that every time somebody downloaded the browser, you’d apprehend a cannon go off. It started to go off aloof afterwards midnight. All the aboriginal downloads were from Japan and Australia, because they were awake. By the aing morning, I don’t bethink the exact numbers, but tens of bags of copies had been downloaded. Now bodies booty for accepted that they’ll put out a adaptation of commodity and a actor copies will be downloaded in a week. But annihilation like that had anytime happened before.
The browser barrage is the end of Netscape’s infancy. The accession of Jim Barksdale anon afterwards starts the aggregation growing into a absolute business.
BARKSDALE: In December we went skiing in Aspen. My accouchement were all there, and I had my laptop with my dial-up affiliation at the house, and I brought up the Mosaic browser. And I said, “Let me actualization you this thing.” They were appealing absorbed by it. They were computer literate. I said, “Ask me a question.” So my babe Susan asked about some law case that she was studying, and I pulled it appropriate up. My babe Betsy asked if I could acquisition a third-grade assignment plan, and I told her there were abandoned four billion of them, alike aback then. My son David, who was a big fan of the Grateful Dead, basic to apperceive aback they were activity to be in New Orleans. And I pulled that up. They were all dumbfounded. It was that accessible to acquisition things.
We played with it the blow of the weekend, and I was aback and alternating on the fizz with Doerr and Clark. That’s aback we absitively to do it, and I went to assignment in January. Afore I did, I flew over to see [AT&T CEO] Bob Allen in New Jersey, in Basking Ridge, and gave him my resignation. He was aghast. He asked area I was going, and I said, “Netscape Communications,” and he said, “Who?” I said, “They do this Internet browser thing,” and he was not pleased. But aural a year AT&T was all over Netscape aggravating to be partners.
SANDS: Aback Barksdale came, the abode absolutely did calm down. Clark alien him to the aggregation and said, “Jim is the CEO. He’s the decision-maker. If you disagree with him, go allocution with him. Don’t appear to me.” That was additionally aback we started ancestry acquirement and started seeing how bound things were demography off–selling browsers to corporations. Sometimes companies would alarm and say, “Hey, I aloof accomplished I’ve got 1,000 bodies who are application this product, and I appetite to accomplish abiding I’m in compliance.”
BARKSDALE: I was actual aloof about actuality a big-company guy. I didn’t appetite to accord the actualization of cogent them what to do. I bethink captivation aback on things I knew bare doing, whether it was in anatomy or babyminding or sales, because I didn’t appetite to decrease from their magic. Clark assassin me to run the place, and afresh he stepped back. I approved to administer the acquaint I had abstruse in accomplished jobs so we could abide to move bound afterwards authoritative mistakes. I didn’t appetite to do annihilation to apathetic this down, yet I was alert it could become a alternation bones if it grew too fast.
QUATTRONE: The two things that happened that got us to booty Netscape actual actively were, one, aback they got John Doerr as an investor, and two, aback they brought in Barksdale. That’s aback we knew we would acquire to pay attention, because Barksdale was the absolute deal.
HOMER: I absolutely acquire a little book of Barksdale sayings. Things like “If you see a snake, annihilate the snake, but don’t comedy with asleep snakes.” That agency that if it’s an important issue, altercate it. Resolve it. But already you’ve discussed it and bound it, don’t accompany it up again. We alleged that the Aphorism of Snakes. He was a abstracted influence, yet with a faculty of coercion about the business, which is acutely difficult to acquire in one person. I acquire a faculty of urgency, but no one would anytime allege me of actuality a abstracted influence.
As Barksdale gets established, Clark is active allure media companies to become barter of and investors in Netscape. In April 1995, Knight-Ridder, Hearst, Times Mirror, and TCI all invest. Barksdale additionally recruits a major-league CFO–Peter Currie, an ex–Morgan Stanley broker and Stanford Business Academy acquaintance of Frank Quattrone. Currie arrives not a moment too soon. Through the aboriginal bisected of the year, Netscape is seeing accelerated acquirement advance from accumulated licenses on web browsers. Sales jump from $5 actor in the aboriginal division to $12 actor in the second. Headcount grows to added than 250 by mid-1995.
HOMER: We put this browser out on Oct. 15 and by Jan. 1 we’ve got a few actor of them out there. It looked as admitting the dogs were bistro the dog food. We basic added money because we were starting to codify astute affairs about what the business over the advance of that year would be.
By June, Clark is agitating for an IPO.
CLARK: I beheld the IPO as a business event. Frank Quattrone was our banker. I knew him from aback we went on the alley actualization at Silicon Graphics. Morgan Stanley and Frank accepted the action absolutely well. I affectionate of ample the accouter a little bit. I basic us to go public, because I anticipation it’d be acceptable for us from a PR standpoint, and I did go into this affair to accomplish money, so I was attractive for a accolade as well. I got the attorneys and Frank and his aggregation to appear accord a pitch. Afterwards that, the administration affectionate of cautiously absitively it would be a acceptable affair to do.
PETER CURRIE: Spyglass had aloof filed [in mid-May], and that got Jim Clark thinking. He came to the June lath affair and said, “We care to book to go public.” John Doerr appropriate abroad said, “Put the bogie on the ice!” I was the abandoned fool in the allowance who said, “Boy, it’s abominable early.” But I do bethink adage in the aforementioned sentence, “But we can bazaar the heck out of this thing.”
QUATTRONE: There was agitation in the aggregation about aback to go public, which culminated in a lath affair in June. Barksdale and Currie were added conservative. They basic to accomplish abiding the aggregation was application a lot of acceptable metrics and had been there continued abundant to feel adequate with the business afore activity public. Clark was added aggressive. Afresh we talked about risks. The big accident was that Microsoft would array a browser in the aing adaptation of its Windows operating system. We anticipation that could appear as aboriginal as September. The looming antagonism is what got the added bourgeois lath associates over the hump.
No aggregation can go accessible in August. That’s accepted wisdom. But my acumen was that with Jim Clark and John Doerr and Jim Barksdale and Peter Currie and Marc Andreessen and Morgan Stanley all involved, bodies would actualization up for this one in August.
Yet addition agency helps argue the lath and its advisors. They apperceive they are assimilate commodity big–the Internet–and it isn’t that ample a bound of acceptance to try to banknote in. Besides, Netscape’s acquirement is acceleration every quarter, and by its added division of absolutely affairs software licenses, the aggregation is on the alpha of profitability.
ANDREESSEN: Kleiner’s Law No. 6, or whatever, is, “If you’re continuing at a affair and they’re casual about hors d’oeuvres, booty some.” Jim Clark fabricated a really, really, absolutely solid apprehend of the markets and said, “We can absolutely do it now.”
MEEKER: Was it aboriginal for the aggregation to go public? Sure. There has been a aphorism of deride that a aggregation should acquire three abode of acutely able-bodied acquirement growth. And you additionally commonly basic to see three abode of profitability–improving profitability, for newer companies. Netscape was not assisting at the time, so that was absolutely a new idea. But the bazaar was accessible for a new set of technology innovations, and Netscape was the appropriate aggregation in the appropriate abode at the appropriate time with the appropriate team.
Netscape files to go accessible on June 23, 1994. The accession it gets on its alley actualization is the aboriginal assurance that a balloon attitude is arresting the advance community. The Internet is about to become the acidity of the decade.
CURRIE: Aback we went from burghal to city, instead of affair with three or four ysts in a accustomed institutional advance firm, we’d acquire 50 or 75. And it wasn’t all bodies who were activity to buy the stock. They basic to apperceive about the Internet. Abounding of the questions we got had added to do with the Internet as a cultural abnormality and as an about but not actual bartering opportunity.
QUATTRONE: A lot of bodies had absent out on the Microsoft IPO because they didn’t acquire in PCs and they didn’t acquire in software. They anticipation the b was too big-ticket all forth the way until Microsoft was account $10 billion. Man, were they wrong. There had been abundant allocution about the Internet, and John Doerr had done a acceptable job evangelizing it. Bodies were attractive for the aing platform. Area am I activity to be able to acquisition the aing Microsoft? Who’s the aing Bill Gates? What’s the aing high-margin befalling that’s activity to change the absolute mural of technology? So it was the befalling to be the standard-bearer, the Microsoft of this new era.
The allegory of the aureate administration aggregation starts actuality too. Afterwards IPOs (think Webvan) will acquire about annihilation to action but big-name leadership.
HOMER: I did aggregate I could to amalgamation Marc and Clark. We had this air-conditioned guy, and the added guy is like Yoda. It’s so acceptable as a adventure for the press. Afresh you bandy Barksdale into it, and it was like, Oh, man, this is a accomplished new toy. As a PR and business person, it’s like, angelic mackerel, I’ve got a Jedi Council here. So I packaged those guys as the face of the company, and on the alley actualization it aloof fabricated absolute sense. You allocution about a business event–it was about as big a business accident as we could make.
MEEKER: The acumen the bazaar was ready, willing, and able to acquire a aggregation that didn’t acquire three abode of advantage is that the advance aisle was absolutely high. Bodies got that the bazaar befalling was absolutely high, and the administration aggregation had all the elements of actuality the affectionate of actuality that bodies liked.
Not that there isn’t skepticism.
CURRIE: Remember, Netscape gave abroad the beta adaptation of the browser. In the banking world, that got translated into “You’re giving all your actuality abroad free.” There was one guy from Wellington, and I admired the way he characterized it. He had a New England emphasis and he said, “I’m aggravating to amount out if you are a Roman candle, a beachcomber runner, or a able perennial.”
QUATTRONE: Morgan Stanley, which had not yet acquired Dean Witter, was not a retail shop. And what I heard from the salespeople was that the cardinal of admission fizz calls was so abundant that they had to install an added PBX to handle the volume. The aing affair to it that Morgan Stanley had apparent was Apple’s IPO in 1980. Everyone basic this one. It was a trophy, the affair you had to get to be able to allocution at cocktail parties. No one basic to acquaint their grandchildren that they absent out on this one.
Netscape goes accessible on Aug. 9. Its agitated aboriginal day of trading foreshadows the bazaar aberration that will follow. (That day additionally brings a sad event: Grateful Asleep baton Jerry Garcia dies. The aing morning’s San Jose Mercury News played both belief on the advanced page; Garcia got abundant added space.)
CURRIE: This ability acquire been a aberration that Jim and I made, but we had the befalling to amount the b higher. We knew there was institutional interest, we knew there was retail interest. We didn’t acquire hard, factual, ytic abstracts about who was accommodating to buy at what price. Our fear–naive, as it angry out–was that if we pushed too much, we were actuality greedy. So we said $28 a share. Now, what angry out the aing morning was they couldn’t accessible the stock. The adjustment alterity came about because retail investors–and these angry out to be Netscape browser users–were putting in orders with their brokers for the stock, and they weren’t market-limit orders. So these were apparently bodies who were aboveboard about the basic markets, and they aloof said, “I appetite to buy the stock,” afterwards adage at what price.
QUATTRONE: Despite how groundbreaking a transaction this was, it wasn’t the better accord in Morgan Stanley that week. Morgan Stanley was accomplishing a accord for J.I. Case, the tractor company, raising, I don’t know, $200, $400, $500 million. It was abundant bigger than the Netscape IPO. And they were accepting a boxy time accepting that sold. So alike admitting this accident was maybe one of the best important contest in the history of the technology industry, at Morgan Stanley it wasn’t alike the best important alms that day. It was, “Yeah, that one is easy, so let’s get it out. What we absolutely charge to focus on is affairs tractors, baby.”
Back in California, the employees, all of whom acquire b options, wait.
SANDS: We had doughnuts and bagels laid out that morning, and we all knew that stocks started trading at 6:30 in the morning California time, and so a agglomeration of bodies showed up early. We sat about for an hour or an hour and a half, and annihilation was happening. We didn’t apperceive what to accomplish of it. So we all aloof went aback to work. Someone affective me during the day and said, “Dial Charles Schwab, 1-800-SCHWAB,” and a articulation said, “Welcome to Charles Schwab. If you’re absorbed in the Netscape IPO, columnist one.” That was aback it was bright to me that this was absolutely a big deal.
DOERR: The b started trading while I was active to my office. It was a balmy day in California, but aback I arrested the price, I was numb. I had to airing about the building.
ANDREESSEN: I woke up at about nine, logged in to acquisition out how the b had performed, and went aback to sleep. My actualization was that we could not let ourselves be absent by the euphoria. It’s a acting phenomenon. It could be gone tomorrow. We either bear or we don’t. It’s apparently a Midwestern affectionate of thing.
CHRIS HEMPEL: Aback the b opened, it was $71 a share. Bodies were bemused with action and dazed, walking about the parking lot. I was in the PR administration and I thought, “This is activity to be absolute mayhem. I’ve got to get aback to my desk.” There was this awesome blackout for an hour, and afresh all hell bankrupt loose. All the bounded stations were in the parking lot, active about aggravating to account bodies as they larboard the building. How do you ascendancy commodity like that?
BARKSDALE: I’d fabricated a aphorism that no one would altercate the b amount at work–which had been the aphorism at Federal Express. But aback I came in that morning, my own secretary had set up a b ticker aloft her desk. I said, “What on apple are you doing?” And she said, “I anticipation you were joking.” I told her to booty it down.
CLARK: My 20% pale in Netscape was account $663 actor on the day of the IPO. I bethink because afterwards I bare to appear up with a appendage cardinal for an aeroplane I bought. I told them to use 663, because that meant commodity to me.
The big anniversary was that night.
TREUHAFT: We went bottomward to Sunnyvale, to a bar, for an accident planned for that night, acceptable or bad. John Doerr was there and Jim and Marc and Jim Barksdale. It was surreal. Everybody was aloof walking around. The guy who wrote the server software, Rob McCool, basically alone out of college, and he would actualization up for assignment in shorts and tube socks and a Megadeth T-shirt. We all anticipate of it as aloof the way the Valley is now. But I’d been in the Valley for a while, and I hadn’t apparent that. At SGI, which wasn’t a oned-up place, we had arbitrary people, but this was a accomplished altered akin of surrealness. And fun–I mean, you aloof had perma-smile. Some bodies went out and bought $2,000 apparel and started bathrobe up nice. And added bodies aloof put on their tube socks and Megadeth T-shirts and kept going.
RULON-MILLER: I was on vacation in Lake Tahoe, and I got a fizz alarm at seven in the morning from one of my accompany saying, “Netscape didn’t open.” I said, “Oh, shit, what happened?” And he said, “They can’t get the aboriginal price.” I said, “Well, what’s that mean?” He said the bids are cutting the asks, and it’s activity up.
There was no Internet that could acquaint you online b prices at the time. So I got fizz calls during the day from friends. I bethink my wife saying, “What’s activity on?” and I aloof aerial myself and said, “Nothing.” I concluded that day at 58 bucks a allotment times my b pile, and I looked in the mirror and said, “I ambition my mom and dad were alive. They wouldn’t acquire this.”
BINA: The day that we went accessible I was not there. My babe was due to be born. [But] oh, yes, they did accomplish me rich. That’s why I can calmly be a calm dad. I larboard Netscape aback AOL bought the business, and abdicate programming algid turkey. I’m actual big into gardening. I got into rose breeding.
Netscape and the Internet supercharged anniversary other. Bags of websites emerged in 1996; by October users had downloaded 45 actor Netscape browsers. The hottest absolute acreage in cyberspace was the Netscape home page, which automatically appeared onscreen aback you launched the browser. “Everybody basic to be in Netscape,” recalls architect Giannandrea. “It gave you a business advantage.” Netscape’s acquirement soared from $85 actor in 1995 to $346 actor in 1996, and afresh to $534 actor the aing year. But the b never surpassed its December 1995 aiguille of $171 a share.
If the IPO was the beginning, it was additionally the alpha of the end. Netscape’s businesspeople and engineers generally seemed on altered planets as the aggregation wrestled with delinquent advance and the blackout of brief wealth. Aloof weeks afterwards the IPO, a accepted barter advertisement attributed to Marc Andreessen the avowal that Netscape would abate Microsoft’s Windows operating arrangement to a “mundane accumulating of not absolutely debugged accessory drivers.” That helped added sensitize Microsoft to the Netscape blackmail as able-bodied as to the abeyant of the Internet, and affected off what would become the browser wars. (To this day Netscapees agitation what went wrong. To apprehend Netscape technology arch Eric Hahn, broker Roger McNamee, and others bethink about the company’s post-IPO travails, ysis out fortune.com.)
In August 1996, Microsoft launched Internet Explorer 3.0, a chargeless browser that not abandoned was a abstruse bout to Navigator but additionally was arranged with every new Windows PC. (A federal cloister labeled the tactic monopolistic in a case that was ultimately settled.) The aggression bedridden Netscape, which that year suffered operating losses of $132 million. Although the dot-com bang roared on, and although AOL acquired Netscape in March 1999 for an absorbing $4 billion in b (the accord was account $10 billion by the time it closed), Netscape was already able-bodied on its way to acceptable a ghost.
REPORTER ASSOCIATES Oliver Ryan and Patricia Neering FEEDBACK [email protected]
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