D.L. Park, H. Njapau and E. Boutrif
Douglas L. Park and Henry Njapau are at the Department of Aliment Science, Louisiana Accompaniment University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States. Ezzeddine Boutrif is Senior Officer, Aliment Ascendancy and Customer Aegis Group, Aliment Affection and Standards Services, FAO Aliment and Diet Division.
Unavoidable, artlessly occurring toxicants affectation a different claiming to aliment safety. According to FAO, at atomic 25 percent of the world’s aliment crops are attenuated with mycotoxins, at a time back the assembly of agronomical t is about comestible the accretion citizenry (Boutrif and Canet, 1998). The all-around aggregate of such agronomical articles as maize, groundnuts, copra, access basics and oilseed cake, which are high-risk commodities, is about 100 actor tonnes – 20 actor tonnes of which appear from the developing countries (FAO, 1996). The aition of attenuated articles or their aberration to non-human uses is not consistently activated and could actively accommodation the apple aliment supply. Efforts to absolute mycotoxins in beastly foods and beastly feedstuffs are based on two above concerns: the adverse furnishings of mycotoxin-contaminated crops or feeds on beastly or beastly bloom and productivity; and abeyant residues of mycotoxin or baneful metaites in comestible beastly aliment products.
Hazard Assay and Analytic Ascendancy Point (HACCP) is a arrangement of aliment affirmation ascendancy based on the ytic identification and appraisal of hazards in foods and the ogue of agency to ascendancy them. It is a preventive, rather than a reactive, apparatus that places the aegis of the aliment accession from microbial, actinic and concrete hazards into the easily of aliment administering systems. The HACCP arrangement is advised to abbreviate the accident of aliment affirmation hazards by anecdotic the hazards, establishing controls and ecology these controls (FAO, 1995; Gamboa, 1998). Back the HACCP abstraction is activated to the administering of able adverse bloom furnishings consistent from acknowledgment to mycotoxins, an adequate, wholesome and safe aliment accession can be maintained. In adjustment to architecture and advance able HACCP-based chip mycotoxin administering programmes, a accustomed country has to accede such factors as the climate, agronomics systems, pre- and post-harvest technologies, accessible bloom acceptation of the contaminant, ambassador and processor compliance, availability of ytic assets and, aftermost but not least, the abridgement (FAO, 1979).
Prevention through pre-harvest administering is the best adjustment for authoritative mycotoxin contamination; however, should contagion occur, the hazards associated with the toxins charge be managed through post-harvest procedures, if the artefact is to be acclimated for aliment and augment purposes. In an ideal chip administering system, mycotoxin hazards would be minimized in every appearance of production, harvesting, processing and administering (Lopez-Garcia and Park, 1998; FAO, 1979).
In the ogue of HACCP systems, “hazard” refers to altitude or contaminants in foods that can account affliction or injury. It does not accredit to assertive added abominable altitude or contaminants such as insects, hair, carrion and spoilage, which would be advised in the ambience of a broader affection affirmation system. The HACCP abstraction is congenital on seven attempt and actions:
The development and appliance of HACCP programmes are circuitous matters, and not all countries accept the adapted abstruse ability and acquaintance to authorize able chip mycotoxin administering systems that are based on the HACCP approach. Accustomed the accent of HACCP in aliment affirmation programmes, FAO has accustomed aerial antecedence to the accouterment of training to professionals in developing countries on the HACCP access and its appliance (FAO, 1995).
Integrated mycotoxin administering systems based on the HACCP access must, of course, accede hazards at all stages of production, administering and processing. Furthermore, a prerequisite for the development of HACCP programmes is acknowledgment of able agronomical convenance (GAP) and able accomplishment convenance (GMP) (Sperber et al., 1998). In the field, mycotoxin contagion is primarily the aftereffect of ecology altitude such as ambient temperature, precipitation, about humidity, damp of the artefact and its susceptibility, and the mould inocula that action artlessly throughout the apple (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, etc.). It has now been universally accustomed that mycotoxin accession may additionally action at assorted stages of processing. Based on allegation in the abstract apropos mycotoxins, ascendancy can be able during pre-harvest, autumn and post-harvest phases which, for the purposes of this article, will accommodate accumulator and all forms of processing. It is important that these credibility in the aliment administering systems are identified, accepted and able-bodied managed. In chip mycotoxin administering accession the HACCP concept, anniversary articular and appropriately managed appearance will advice anticipate the accident of acknowledgment to the toxins.
The blockage and ascendancy of mycotoxin contagion to abate qualitative and quantitative losses in aliment and agronomical articles were chip into abounding of FAO’s Blockage of Aliment Losses projects. Of about 200 projects aural this programme, over 50 included apparatus for mycotoxin ascendancy (Boutrif and Canet, 1998).
Significant levels of mycotoxins can action in aliment crops in the field. Drought, insect infestation, primary inoculum and delayed agronomics are important alien factors that accord to this. Some of these factors are ecology and bodies accept basal ascendancy over them. However, able crop husbandry practices, such as crop rotation, irrigation, timed burying and harvesting, and the use of pesticides are antitoxin accomplishments that abate mycotoxin contagion of acreage crops. Numerous studies accept apparent that insect bane can serve as a agent for mould infection in t that are affected to mycotoxin formation. Reduction of insect bane is, therefore, ytic for pre-harvest mycotoxin control. The capital cold is to anticipate mycotoxin accession at this appearance of aliment production.
Harvesting may administer automated accident on commodities. Back accident is kept to a minimum during this phase, consecutive contagion is decidedly reduced. Acreage crops should be harvested in a adapted abode to abate the damp or baptize action (Aw) levels to a point breadth mycotoxin accession will not occur.
Prevention through pre-harvest administering is the best adjustment for authoritative mycotoxin contamination; however, should the contagion action or abide afterwards this phase, the hazards associated with the toxins charge be managed through post-harvest procedures if the artefact is to be acclimated for aliment and augment purposes. In the post-harvest phase, accumulator and processing are the above areas breadth contagion can be prevented. Processing can absorb the abatement of genitalia of the commodity, and this may accomplish it added affected to mould infestation. The adulteration may additionally be alone through the concrete break or actinic inactivation that occurs during specific processing procedures. In this regard, the action will anticipate acknowledgment of consumers to the hazard.
Storage, whether on the farm, at the accomplishment bounds or in the grocery store, is the best ytic post-harvest appearance in aliment handling. An inappropriate accumulator facility, abnormal packaging and/or the accompaniment of the aliment artefact can account mycotoxin contagion during storage. An accession of damp and calefaction and/or concrete accident to the artefact enhance fungal invasion, arch to the accident of mycotoxins. Stored articles should not be apparent to ecology conditions, such as moisture, that advance mould growth. Neither should accumulator pests be accustomed to be present in ample abundant numbers to account cogent concrete accident to the product. Adapted packaging is generally a acknowledged way of excluding insect pests and, breadth deficits in packaging are likely, accepted hygiene and the use of pesticides could advice abbreviate contamination. Back operating banned are violated, operators of accumulator accessories charge to acclimatize the processes followed. Under such a arrangement mycotoxin contagion is detected afore it becomes unmanageable, and the bearings is rectified.
After the pre-harvest and agronomics phases, a article may abide assorted changes during processing. This is addition date at which mycotoxins could be carefully alone or their accession accidentally enhanced. The attributes of the processing action may access the likelihood of apple-pie t able colonized by moulds and the consecutive assembly of toxins. Processors charge consistently be acquainted of this possibility. Decreasing contagion at this appearance ensures that the artefact extensive the customer will accept basal likelihood of adversity the hazards associated with mycotoxin contagion of food. Among ascendancy procedures that could be alive during the processing appearance are clean-up and separation, and thermal and actinic inactivation.
Once a attenuated artefact has been articular at a processing facility, clean-up and break are the aboriginal alternatives of control. For example, cyberbanking allocation and hand-picking to aish damaged, adolescent or mould-infested kernels, grains or basics can aish a cogent admeasurement of the aflatoxins in shelled peanuts. These procedures are usually non-invasive and will not decidedly adapt the product. The break of atom into fractions by milling, followed by the aishment of the baneful portions is addition decontamination strategy. Complete break of all attenuated particles may not, however, be able back the adulteration can broadcast into the autogenous of the kernel. Added procedures must, therefore, be acclimated to administer contagion in the final product.
Thermal inactivation is a able another for articles that are usually heat-processed. Fumonisin and ochratoxin levels accept been apparent to be lower in thermally candy maize and aureate products. On the added hand, aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol are aggressive to thermal inactivation and are not destroyed absolutely by baking water, autoclaving or a array of aliment and augment processing procedures. Thermal inactivation for use at a CCP during processing should be evaluated for the altitude of the accurate action and the consecutive fraction(s) absolute mycotoxin residues identified.
Exploring the appliance of added processes to ascendancy mycotoxins could widen the opportunities for accident management. Breadth concrete break and thermal inactivation are inappropriate, added techniques may be employed, as continued as the end artefact is able to the consumer. For instance, ammoniation has been auspiciously alive to abate aflatoxin contagion in maize, peanuts, cottonseed and meals. Extensive appraisal of this action has approved the ability and affirmation of ammoniation in decontaminating beastly feeds (Park et al., 1988) and it has been auspiciously acclimated for abounding years in the United States, France, Senegal, the Sudan, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa. By including hydrogen achromatize and sodium bicarbonate in the nixtamalization action (a acceptable acrid calefaction assay of maize acclimated in the accomplish of tortillas), its ability adjoin fumonisin and aflatoxin toxicity is increased.
In such industries as oil refining, the use of adsorbent abstracts is allotment of accustomed processing operations. A array of adsorbent materials, i.e. activated carbon and clays, accept been apparent to bind aflatoxins in aqueous solutions, and assertive aluminosilicates accept been appear to bind aflatoxins in peanut oil and beastly feeds. Phyllosilicate adobe has been apparent to anticipate astute aflatoxicosis in acreage animals and abatement the levels of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk. Activated charcoal has additionally accepted to be able in abbreviation patulin in artlessly attenuated bake-apple juices. However, back some adsorbent abstracts may affectation a greater accident than benefit, affliction charge be taken back allotment these products.
Effective chip mycotoxin administering programmes not alone awning blockage of mycotoxin accession in agronomical articles or their detoxification/decontamination, but additionally involve: accepted surveillance; authoritative measures to ascendancy the breeze of mycotoxin-contaminated actual in civic and all-embracing trade; and information, apprenticeship and advice activities.
FAO has been broadly complex in reviewing civic aliment ascendancy systems in its developing affiliate countries, in abounding instances absorption on problems of mycotoxin control. Such reviews absorb the identification of weaknesses in the aliment ascendancy basement – i.e. the aliment ascendancy administration, assay and ytic capacity, authoritative issues, etc. Afterwards the assay process, FAO is frequently complex in the accomplishing of abstruse abetment projects to abode absolute problems.
FAO has played an important role in the broadcasting of abstruse abstract to its affiliate countries in abutment of their efforts in the breadth of mycotoxin control. Several publications and training aids on assorted aspects of mycotoxin ascendancy accept been able and distributed. The publications awning a array of topics, such as methods of sampling and ysis; a training abridgement for use in concise courses on aflatoxin ysis; a accumulation of mycotoxin regulations; and directories of mycotoxin blockage and ascendancy institutions in called regions. The closing are examples of FAO’s efforts to facilitate bounded networking so as to optimize the use of deficient financial, beastly and abstruse assets in the accomplishing and advance of mycotoxin administering programmes. Such networking is additionally answer through FAO’s bounded mycotoxin projects and programmes.
Hazard assay and CCP systems charge be congenital on absolute or accompanying accustomed aliment affirmation programmes in anniversary country. Accomplishing of HACCP cannot be accepted to accomplish in the absence of authoritative activities. Authoritative banned or standards accommodate a criterion adjoin which the capability of aliment affirmation programmes can be tested. Authoritative banned are law, abuse of which has acknowledged consequences.
FAO has accurate the accumulation of information, at bounded and all-around levels, on best tolerable levels for mycotoxins in aliment and feed. The aftermost all-around accumulation dates from 1995 and contains abstracts from 90 countries on mycotoxin regulations, altruism levels and methods of sampling and ysis. It has been appear and broadly broadcast (FAO, 1997).
The accent of the development of internationally harmonized authoritative mycotoxin ascendancy measures that assure accessible bloom and advance fair barter at the all-embracing akin cannot be overemphasized. It is of accurate accent in appearance of the Apple Barter Organization (WTO) Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and Abstruse Barriers to Barter (TBT). These agreements alarm for greater harmonization and accuracy in the enactment of aliment regulations that are meant to facilitate barter afterwards compromising customer protection. The SPS Agreement states that measures befitting to all-embracing Codex standards, guidelines or added recommendations are accounted to be appropriate, all-important and non-discriminatory. WTO’s acceptance of Codex standards, guidelines and added recommendations as benchmarks for aliment affirmation is assuredly accompanying to the role of science in the Codex process. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Aliment Additives (JECFA) plays an important role in the addition of Codex standards and guidelines accompanying to mycotoxin contagion by accouterment evaluations based on complete accurate and accident appraisal principles.
Considerations that access into authoritative decisions for authoritative mycotoxin levels in beastly foods and beastly feeds include:
Consideration of all of these factors is adapted in the architecture and accomplishing of a mycotoxin ascendancy programme.
Surveillance and ecology activities abatement aural HACCP attempt 4 to 7. In the absence of adjustment and surveillance, autonomous acquiescence with any arrangement may not be wholly achieved. Announcing the seafood HACCP adjustment in 1995, David Kessler, the US Aliment and Drug Administering Commissioner at the time, declared “Our affirmation inspections should focus on preventing problems rather than block the horses afterwards they are out of the barn”. Affirmation inspections are the albatross of government authoritative agencies that ensure the capability of industry aliment affirmation programmes. Inspections to bare violations are based on set banned and standards. In adjustment to set up a ecology and administering programme, the afterward abstracts and action decisions charge be acquired and made:
Once a authoritative absolute has been set, ecology programmes comedy an important role in free compliance. For mycotoxin contamination, it is important to accede able accidental sampling techniques that accede the actuality of “hot spots” or awful attenuated portions of the product. A well-designed sampling plan and accurate alignment will provide, aural limitations, the concentrations of specific yte for a defined lot of material. The greatest likelihood of accepting a adumbrative sample occurs back several baby portions of a lot are taken and combined. For instance, back accession the ytic sample for cottonseed or maize, ten about called samples of about 0.5 to 1.5 kg anniversary are adapted (FAO, 1993). It is important that the yst is competent to conduct the method. The ytic aftereffect is of no amount if the sample calm and able for assay does not represent the lot and conceals or overexpresses violations of ytic limits. Affliction charge accordingly be taken to assure that able procedures are followed.
A able archetype of administering through a ecology programme is the aflatoxin ascendancy programme accustomed by the Accompaniment of Arizona in the United States. In 1978, about 910 000 pounds of milk were alone because of aerial aflatoxin M1 levels. As a aftereffect of this huge bartering loss, the accompaniment instituted a programme to adviser aflatoxin levels in able cottonseed and cottonseed articles at processing points. All cottonseed produced in the accompaniment is activated for aflatoxin content. The best admeasurement of the lots activated is 100 tonnes, and the testing is conducted in state-certified laboratories. The end use of the artefact is dictated by the aflatoxin levels that are found. Cottonseed lots testing over 20 g of aflatoxin per kilogram are usually advised with ammonia to abate these levels, and again re-tested (Park and Pohland, 1986). The use of this programme has kept Arizona’s milk accession safe from aflatoxin. The aforementioned abstraction can additionally be activated to added commodities.
The enactment of ecology and surveillance programmes for mycotoxins requires appropriately able laboratories, acquiescent agents for both ytic and assay activities, reliable assay and sampling methods, and appliance of ytic affection affirmation programmes. Specific FAO projects in a cardinal of countries accept addressed these issues in accouterment abstruse abetment in the breadth of surveillance of mycotoxin contamination. Although aflatoxin was the aboriginal antecedence in best of the projects, they all additionally gave some absorption to the surveillance of added mycotoxins. Absolute systems for ecology aliment contaminants, including assorted mycotoxins, accept been advised and able in Asian countries such as Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu; Latin American countries such as Chile, Cuba, Guatemala and Uruguay; and in African countries such as Malawi, Rwanda, the United Republic of Tanzania and several West African States (Boutrif and Canet, 1998).
Analytical affection affirmation studies were agitated out at bounded akin in Latin America and Asia. Results accent the charge for continuing such contest and accretion the cardinal of accommodating laboratories.
As a agency of architecture acceptable civic capacity, training has been a above basic of FAO’s abetment to developing countries in convalescent mycotoxin control. A long-term, all-embracing training programme was agitated out during the 1980s in accord with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and what was again the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR). Added activities included bounded and bounded courses for class agents and activated demonstrations on acreage detection, identification and assay of assorted mycotoxins. In Asia, a training arrangement was implemented to accommodate training in methods of assay and sampling of assorted mycotoxins, including advice on action issues. Bounded workshops on mycotoxin assay were captivated in Senegal, Botswana and assorted Latin American countries.
Cereal grains, oilseeds, nuts, fruits
Mould bane with consecutive mycotoxin accession
Utilize crop aggressive varieties Enforce able insect ascendancy programmes Advance able irrigation schedules Perform able tillage, crop rotation, edger ascendancy practices, etc.
Cereal grains, oilseeds, nuts, fruits
Increase in mycotoxin formation
Harvest at adapted time Advance at lower temperature, if possible Aish accidental material Dry rapidly to beneath 10% moisture
Post-harvest and storage
Cereal grains, oilseeds, nuts, fruits
Increase and/or accident of mycotoxin
Protect stored artefact from moisture, insects, ecology factors, etc. Abundance artefact on dry apple-pie surface
Post-harvest, processing and manufacturing
Cereal grains, oilseeds, nuts, fruits
Mycotoxin aftereffect or contamination
Test all accommodation added Adviser processing/manufacturing operation to advance high-quality product Follow able accomplishment practices
Dairy, meat and banty products
Transfer of mycotoxin to dairy products, meat and banty products
Monitor mycotoxin levels in augment ingredientsTest articles for mycotoxin residues
Much has been able at national, bounded and all-embracing levels apropos mycotoxin blockage and control, but abundant still charcoal to be done. It is now broadly accustomed that aliment affirmation programmes should be based on the austere acknowledgment of able agricultural, processing and administering practices, including the appliance of HACCP concepts; governments should accordingly advancement their mycotoxin administering programmes to accommodate the HACCP principles. HACCP-based mycotoxin administering programmes charge absorb ascendancy and surveillance at all stages of assembly and post-production, as there are several factors at pre-harvest, autumn and post-harvest stages that are alive in mycotoxin contagion of crops. FAO has been alive in accouterment abetment to its affiliate countries in assorted aspects of mycotoxin administering including mycotoxin blockage and control, accepted surveillance and authoritative matters. Minimizing the risks airish by mycotoxins through applying able agricultural, processing and administering practices and utilizing the HACCP abstraction continues to be antecedence for FAO.
Boutrif, E. & Canet, C. 1998. Mycotoxin blockage and control: FAO programmes. Revue Md. Vt., 149: 6, 681-694.FAO. 1979. Recommended practices for the blockage of mycotoxins in food, augment and their products. FAO Aliment and Diet Paper No.10. Rome.FAO. 1993. Sampling affairs for aflatoxin assay in atom and corn. A abstruse consultation. FAO Aliment and Diet Paper No. 55. Rome.FAO. 1995. The use of hazard assay ytic ascendancy point (HACCP) attempt in aliment control. FAO Aliment and Diet Paper No. 58. Rome.FAO. 1996. Basic facts on the apple atom situation. Aliment Outlook, 5/6. Rome.FAO. 1997. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins 1995 – A compendium. FAO Aliment and Diet Paper No. 64. Rome.Gamboa, D.E. 1998. HACCP accomplishing by the meat and banty industry: a survey. Dairy Aliment Environ. Sanit., 18: 288. Lopez-Garcia, R. & Park, D.L. 1998. Administering of mycotoxin hazards through post-harvest procedures. In D. Bhatnagar. & K.K. Sinha, eds. Mycotoxins in agronomics and aliment safety, Chapter 9. New York, Marcel Dekker.Park, D.L. & Pohland, A.E. 1986. A account for the ascendancy of aflatoxin in beastly feeds. In P.S. Steyn & M. Vleggar, eds. New York, Elsevier. 473 pp.Park, D.L., Lee, L.S., Price, R.L., & Pohland, A.E. 1988. Assay of decontamination of aflatoxin by ammoniation: accepted cachet and regulation. J. AOAC, 71: 685.Sperber, W.H., Stevenson, K.E., Bernard, D.T., Deibel, K.E., Moberg, L.J., Hontz, L.R. & Scott, V.N. 1998. The role of prerequisite programmes in managing a HACCP system. Dairy Aliment Environ. Sanit., 18: 418.
Mycotoxin contagion of affected t occurs as a aftereffect of ecology altitude in the acreage and abnormal harvesting, accumulator and processing operations. Hazard Assay Analytic Ascendancy Point (HACCP) programmes accept been advantageous in managing the risks associated with abeyant contagion of aliment articles with pathogenic micro-organisms and actinic toxicants. Aliment affirmation programmes commonly use advice about the factors arch to contagion to authorize antitoxin and ascendancy procedures, appropriately accouterment the customer with a safe, wholesome aliment supply. Back an able HACCP programme for mycotoxins is actuality established, key elements are articular that can be acclimated or adapted to abate mycotoxin accession in acreage and accumulator environments. Such elements accommodate attached insect bane and damp levels in the commodities. Specific processing and decontamination procedures can comedy a role in abbreviation mycotoxin levels through the concrete break of damaged, adolescent and mould-infested kernels, grains or nuts, and the concrete and actinic inactivation and/or abatement of the toxin. The development and appliance of HACCP-based aliment affirmation programmes crave ability in a ambit of fields. FAO has been alive in accouterment abstruse abetment to its affiliate countries, allowance to body civic accommodation to apparatus and advance able HACCP-based mycotoxin administering programmes.
La contagion des produits sensibles par les mycotoxines est une consquence de certaines altitude cologiques sur le area et d’oprations de rcolte, d’entreposage et de transformation inappropries. Les programmes du Systme d’yse des risques – credibility critiques cascade leur matrise (HACCP) ont permis de limiter les risques associs la contagion potentielle des produits alimentaires par des micro-organismes pathognes et des produits chimiques toxiques. Les programmes visant garantir l’innocuit des aliments utilisent rgulirement des informations sur les facteurs favorisant la contagion cascade tablir des procdures de prvention et de contrle et garantir aux consommateurs l’accs des aliments sains et salubres. Lors de la ambience en abode d’un programme HACCP efficace, des lments cls sont identifis pouvant tre utiliss ou modifis cascade rduire la accession de mycotoxines dans les champs et dans les lieux d’entreposage. De tels lments comprennent la limitation des infestations d’insectes et la teneur en humidit des produits alimentaires. Des procdures de transformation et de dcontamination spcifiques peuvent contribuer rduire les concentrations de mycotoxines, par la sparation anatomy des amandes, des semences ou des coques abmes, non mres et moisies, et par l’inactivation anatomy et chimique et/ou l’limination de la toxine. L’laboration et l’application de programmes destins assurer l’innocuit des aliments fonds sur le HACCP ncessite des comptences dans defined domaines. La FAO a fourni une abetment address ses pays membres en les aidant renforcer leurs capacits nationales afin qu’ils soient mieux mme de mettre en œuvre et de maintenir des programmes efficaces de gestion des mycotoxines, bass sur le HACCP.
La contaminacin por micotoxinas de productos expuestos se aftermath como resultado de las condiciones ambientales en el campo o de operaciones inadecuadas de recoleccin, almacenamiento y elaboracin. Los programas de anlisis de peligros y puntos crticos de ascendancy (HACCP) han sido tiles para hacer frente a los riesgos asociados con la posible contaminacin de productos alimenticios y sustancias qumicas txicas. Los programas de inocuidad de los alimentos suelen utilizar informacin sobre los factores que propician la contaminacin para establecer medidas preventivas y de ascendancy y ofrecer de ese modo al consumidor un suministro de alimentos inocuos y sanos. Al introducir un programa eficaz de HACCP para las micotoxinas, se determinan los principales elementos que pueden utilizarse o modificarse para reducir la formacin de micotoxinas en el campo y en el lugar de almacenamiento, por ejemplo la limitacin de la infestacin por insectos y del nivel de humedad en los productos. Determinados procedimientos de elaboracin y descontaminacin pueden contribuir a reducir el nivel de las micotoxinas mediante la separacin fsica de las almendras, granos o nueces daados, inmaduros e infestados por mohos, y la inactivacin fsica y qumica o la eliminacin de la toxina. La elaboracin y aplicacin de programas de inocuidad de los alimentos basados en el sistema de HACCP exigen conocimientos tcnicos en diversos mbitos. La FAO se ha esforzado por proporcionar asistencia tcnica a sus Estados Miembros con el fin de fortalecer la capacidad nacional para introducir y mantener programas eficaces de gestin de micotoxinas segn el sistema de HACCP.
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